Arthroplasty is surgery and reconstruction of the joint and may be performed via arthroscopy (occasionally termed a “closed” or minimally invasive procedure) or utilizing open joint surgical approaches as indicated.
Temporo-mandibular joint dysfunctions (TMDs) are a common cause of persistent facial pain, headaches, jaw clicking, and jaw locking. Internal Derangement (ID) is one of the most common types of disorders affecting the TMJ. Internal derangement can be classified into 5 stages of dysfunction. Later stages such as disc displacement without reduction and TMJ degenerative changes are less frequent. Procedures involving the temporomandibular joint, including open surgery and arthroscopy have been used to correct either position or structural problems of the disc, articular eminence, and the condyle.
Open surgery is still considered to be the “last resort” for patients affected by TMD for which other therapies have failed to improve signs and symptoms, preferring minimally invasive surgical techniques. Relief of symptoms and pain is a primary objective. Absolute indications were TMJ tumors, ankylosis, and condyle growth abnormalities.
Open-joint arthroplasty is surgery to repair, reposition, replace, or remove parts in a joint. When used to treat the temporomandibular disorder (TMD), this usually involves the articular disc that cushions the jaw joint. During open-joint arthroplasty of the jaw, an incision is made in the skin to expose the jaw joint. The planned surgical procedure is performed under direct vision in the open procedure and under indirect (endoscope camera) in the arthroscopic approach.